Being the second largest country in Europe (after the Russian Federation) Ukraine has a diversity of managed landscapes, from mixed broad-leaved forests in the north and in the Carpathian Mountains to large agricultural regions, as well as the steppe and Mediterranean zones in the south. The country has legacies of multicultural influence on landscapes’ management as a result of being a part of different empires during recent centuries. At present Ukraine is in transition from planned socialistic to market economy. Therefore there are many radical changes in social and economic structures of society as well as in natural resource management.

This area in the westernmost part of Ukraine occupies the NE side of Eastern Carpathian Mountains in the upper part of the Dnister river basin. The valleys, forests and mountains have a long history of human use. Boikos, an ethnographic group of Ukrainian highlanders, still maintain their traditional village system and way of living. At present maintenance of cultural landscapes, protection and conservation of nature and development of a diversified regional economy are the main issues in landscape management.

Located in the central part of Ukraine in the Poltava Region. The area belongs to the forest-steppe zone with rich black soils and fragments of oak, lime and pine forests. The forests were cleared for agricultural purposes hundreds of years ago. Nowadays the main directions in natural resource management are to develop a profitable agriculture and to increase and improve the forested area.